Move to Top
News banner


What problems are sought to be addressed ?
  • Distribution inequities-not all delhi residents are connected with piped water network.This is more so far low income households.
  • supply is unreliable and of limited duration.
  • Forced dependence on tubewell water - water quality deteriorates and ground water table fall's.
  • If water is supplied intermittently, it can get contaminated due to sucking in of impurities when the pipes are empty - with continous pressurise water supply,impurities can't be sucked in.
  • Poor households with no household treatment,especially suffer adverse health impact from such impurities.
  • Poor water pressure- consumer forced to bear additional cost for storage, booster pumps and associated electricity bills.
  • False readings due to recording air movement in intermittent supply and non-functional meters leading to ad- hoc billing.
  • Unresolved consumer complaints.
  • Lack of customer orientation among Delhi Jal Board (DJB) employees.
What are the expected benifits from proposed reforms?
  • Prime focus would be on reducing water loses i.e. Non- Revenue Water (NRW), which consists of Technical and Commercial Losses
    • Technical loss = Physical leakage in water pipes.
    • Commercial loss= Water theft +Unbilled / under-billed water due to non-functional / defective meters.
  • Reduced NRW would enable DJB to increase supply duration,and cover hitherto uncovered areas with same supply.
  • With improved supply, tubewells and tanker supply may also be gradually phased out.
  • Improved water quality would reduce incidence of water borne and water related diseases
  • Coping costs of consumers on storage, pumping, electricity charges and maintaince costs, would come down.
  • Improved financial health of DJB due to improved revenue realisation, and reduced operational cost - would leave DJB with funds to invest on network rehabilitation in other areas too.
  • No waste of consumer time in collecting and storing water, especially by lower income groups.
  • Better customer services and better handling of consumer complaints.
In short, there would be improvement in equity, reliability and security of water supply.
Where do major physical water losses take place in network of DJB ?
  • Major part of physical loss occurs in service pipes that connect DJB water distribution lines to consumer house. Typically, consumers do not bother about these leaks because they happen before consumer meters and hence go unmetered.
  • While service pipes are typically required to be provided by consumers, under the proposed reforms even house service pipes would be replaced at DJB's expense.
  • Losses within consumer premises (usually more than 25% of supply) may occur due to leakages in :
    • Washbasins
    • Flush
    • Garden laps
    • Leaking / overflowing sumps / tanks
    • Old buried GI pipes
  • Such losses occur beyond consumer meter and inflate water bills. Sometimes even when DJB water supply is meeting quality norms perfectly, contamination results due to poor quality/ rusted pipes in consumer premises. Since these leaks occur in consumer premises, these would need to be addressed by the consumer.DJB would however be willing to provide technical guidance on how to address these leaks.
What is meant by continuous pressurized water supply ?
  • Make available water 24 hours a day and 7 days a week at consumer end, with a residual pressure to ensure that it reaches, say , at least 2 floors without any booster pumps.
Does DJB have sufficient water for 24x7 supply ?
  • For the time being Delhi has enough water to supply 24x7 to the target areas.
  • Delhi's per capita water supply is more than most other cities globally.
  • Curbing physical loss (ecomically it is difficult to reduce losses to below 12%) would be akin to water supply augmentation.
  • Accurate metering with continous water supply also bring in a sense of conservation.
    • Many examples exits in Karnataka and in Nagpur, and other developing countries, where with introduction of 24*7 water, the consumption did not go up but reduced as a result of reduced losses and wastage
    • In throwing out of old water by hoseholds.Metered, continous water supply brings in a sense of conservation in users. About 2 lakh residents in Hubli-Dharwar, Belgaum and Gulbarga, in Karnataka now post-reform
    • As against the pre-reform supply which was just 1-2 hour's once every 5 days. The citizens have expressed satisfaction with the projects.
    • There are instances of countries practicing continous water supplies even with 80 lpcd (Litres per capita per day) consumption, contrary to normal 135 lpcd adopted in designing water supply in India.
is continous water supply cost effective ?
  • Continous water distribution is most effective way of distributing water, both for water utility and the customers.
  • If DJB has to pump the same quantity of water in 4 hours rather than 24. it requires larger pipes and very complicated opening and closing valve also requires higher pumping and storage capacities. This results in higher pumping and electricity costs, and also increases wear and tear in the system.
  • In intermittent supply, customers have to build their own storage, as has happened in most of Delhi. Some customers also have to go for alternative supplies such as bore wells and install booster pumps resulting in in-equities in supply (tail-end people suffer because of booster pumps). Continous supply saves storage, pumping, and electricity and maintenance costs for consumers.
Whether meters show higher reading in 24x7 supply ?
  • In contrast, during intermittency supply, meter runs due to air pressure when booster pumps are operated. Hence, consumer may get inflated bills.
  • For sustaining 24x7 water supply, accurate meters are installed and hence consumers are required to pay only for actual use.
Is it proposed to privatize water supply in Delhi?
  • Proposed reforms would be undertaken under Public- Private partnership(PPP) where Private Contractor ( hitherto called Operator) would be hired for:
    • Managing Water distribution and Underground Reservoirs.
    • Rehabilitating/ installing pipelines of the distribution network.
    • Deliver consumer serviced as per pre- specified Service Service Level Benchmarks (SLBs).
  • PPP is not privatization as evident from the following:
    • DJB shall continue to hold total ownership of all existing assets, and those created by the Operator.
    • Responsibility to provide water service to public will remain with DJB.
    • DJB will alone determine consumer tariff and operator will have no say in this.
    • Operator payment is independent of tariff, and linked to performance against pre-specified targets.
    • Consumers would not be required to pay anything to operator and Operator' payment shall be made by DJB.
  • PPP is a tried and tested approach globally, in developed and developing countries alike, and in India.
  • Project would rather be implemented as Public-private-people Partnership (PPPP), where in RWA representatives would also be involved in reporting about service delivery and consumer concerns.
  • Jobs of DJB employees are secure and they would continue to draw all benefits of normal employees.
  • All powers, including the power to disconnect water/sewer connections of the consumers under the Delhi Water Board Act shall continue to vest with Delhi Jal Board officers.
  • Unlike the case of Delhi Vidyut board, in case of DJB, there is no plan of privatizing it.
Why Private Operator and not DJB staff ?
  • Slow and gradual reforms in public sector are difficult to sustain and often derail.
  • Effective mechanism is currently not present to make DJB employees accountable for Service delivery.
  • Operational efficiency and service delivery is likely to improve with introduction of private Sector for the following reasons:
  • No bonus or penalty for performance for DJB employees.
  • Decision making on operational issues is faster in private sector (not burdened by maze of Government rules and procedures)
  • Private sector is effective for improvement in services as witnessed in Telecom, Banking, Highways, Power, etc
  • Customer orientation tends to be stronger since payments are based on results.
  • DJB has manpower resourses but needs to secure globally best technology and management techniques.private Operator would help bridge the gap.
What is the basic difference between a tradional construction contract and PPT contract?
  • In conventional contracts, the responsibility of contractor ends with construction and Commissioning of, say, a water supply system.
  • In PPP Contract, the Contractor's payment is linked to successful accomplishment of project objectives i.e. service delivery to consumers on pre-assigned benchmarks. This ensures the quality of the work.
Tradionally the utilities have engaged in mere construction contracts but over time are shifting to PPP contracts for its obvious advantages.
Whether consumers would be required to pay for the capital cost of rehabilitation, and meter and connections replacement?
  • Consumers would not be required to pay any capital cost to DJB or to any Private Contractor. All costs will be borne by DJB. Consumers would only pay normal water bills to DJB.
Are PPPs being taken up for the first time in Delhi in water sector?
  • No, Sonia Vihar WTP was the first water PPP project {Construction and Operation & Maintenance (O&M)} that commenced in 2005 in Delhi. Today, Sonia Vihar WTP is Delhi's best managed WTP.
  • Bhagirathi WTP rehabilitation and maintenance was also awarded to Private Operator in 2011.
What areas are proposed to be covered for pilot projects in Delhi ?
  • Vasant Vihar Project: Colonies of Shanti Niketan,Westend,Vasant Enclave,Vasant Vihar and Adjoining JJ Clusters.
  • Mehrauli Project: Mehrauli Township comprising of Lai Tanki,Bawaji Wala,Garhwal,Kishangarh,Qutub Area.
  • Malviya Nagar UGR Command area Project: Malviya Nagar, Saket,Pushp Vihar,katwaria Sarai,Qutub Institutional area, Ignou, Neb Sarai,Saidulajab,Kalu Sarai,Sarvodya Enclave,Navjeevan Vihar, Khirki Village, Sheikh Sarai,Chirag Delhi-40,000 consumers.
  • Nangloi WTP command area covering Mohan Garden,Paschim Vihar, Mundka, Nagloi, Nagafgarh

Future extensions in indicated areas would also be covered.

What is the total contract period? What are the various phases and works involved ?
  • Mehrauli & Vasant Vihar: 2 years construction & rehabilitation+8 years of O&M
  • Malviya Nagar: 2 years construction & rehabilitation+10 years of O&M
  • Nangloi: 3 years construction & rehabilitation+12 years of O&M.
What are the prescribed service Levels on operator during O&M period ?
  • Ensure continous (24*7) pressurized water supply as per BIS prescribed quality norms.
  • Water coverage to be expanded to cover every household in the service area, unless technically or legally unfeasible.
  • Minimum level of residual chlorine I water to be ensured to deliver bacteria free potable water.
  • All connections to be metered to bill Consumers as per actual consumption
  • Water loss (Physical & Commercial) i.e. NRW to be finally reduced consumption.
  • At least 95% of payment billed to consumers to be recovered.
  • All Customer queries and complaints to be responded in a time-bound manner.
What will be the facilities for redressal of customer grievances ?
  • Customer Service Centers will be set-up at convenient places in the Service Area to improve customer interface and grievance redressal mechanism.
  • Under the contract the Operator is obliged to attend to consumer's complaints effectively and in a timely manner.
  • Operator would b required to conduct Customer Communication Campaigns to provide information on services, operating and emergency plans, etc.
  • Operator would be required to educate consumers about saving water.
Whether unauthorized connections will be disconnected or regularized ?

Wherever technically and legally feasible unauthorized connections shall be regularized and brought under biling net. Decision on disconnections, if at all, would be taken by DJB and not the operator. Private contractor would only implement DJB decisions.

Who will fix water tariffs and other charges? Will Operator be responsible for the same ?
  • Fixing of water tariff and other charges shall continue to be the responsibility of DJB.
  • Tariff even in areas under pilot projects would continue to be the same as for the rest of Delhi.
  • Private Contractor would have no say in the process.

Hence, at water tariff, s for the rest of Delhi, the consumer in the project areas would receive much better water delivery and consumer service.
Already there are demands to bring more areas under project coverage.

On what basis would the Operator be paid?
  • Operator would be paid by DJB.
  • Payment would be collected by Operator and deposited into DJB account as per a stringent revenue protocol.
  • Consumers would have no obligation in this regard, other than paying for normal water bills.
Payment to Operator would depend on satisfactory delivery of water as per approved SLBs.
What will be the impact on poor households?

Continous supply would benefit the poor households, the most, by saving high coping costs as well as improving public health.

  • At present those households, who do not have individual connections, especially the poor, get lesser quantity of water. Through individual water connections, all consumers will be able to et water as per demand.
  • No need to queue up before a tanker or collect water at odd hours.
  • Will be freed from buying low quality water at high cost from private sources
  • Saved from adverse health impacts and treatment costs, etc.

There shall be no change in tariffs of poor households and they will continue to benefit from subsidized tariff policy of DJB.

What will be the impact on DJB employees?
  • Job security of DJB employees would be ensured – No retrenchment / termination of job.
  • No change in service conditions of employees would take place
  • Employees will continue to draw normal salary and other benefits.
  • Salaries of deputed employees shall be paid by DJB.
  • Operator will take over water supply only – Sewerage will remain with DJB.
  • Only willing employees would be deputed to project area – deputed employees would have opportunity to work with private sector without losing security of government sector.
  • Deputed employees could additionally earn performance incentive from Operator
  • DJB employees unwilling to work with Operator would be used in other areas where there is a shortage of manpower.
  • Transfer of knowledge to deputed employees in global best practices in water network management.
  • Employees would have satisfaction of being associated with a system that delivers efficiently.
  • As consumers of DJB water, they would benefit from improved services.
Have the public and DJB employees consulted?

Asian Centre for Organization Research and Development (ACORD) conducted a Jan Bhagidari Workshop.Sep23-24, 2011 for the RWAs and DJB employees from Malviya Nagar & Vasant Vihar Project Area, when they were explained about the various aspects of The project, they essentially welcomed the project. More such consultations have been Planned.

Who will qualify to work as an operator ?

Only Operator with adequate and proven exposure in the field would be selected. The Lead Bidder will necessary need to be an Indian Company.

Whether all the existing public taps/standposts be disconnected ?

Any decision to close public standposts shall be taken by DJB only after individual house connections have been provided and all residents in the command area of standposts have an assured water supply.

Will the connection charges for new connections be higher than the existing charges ?

No. The connection charges would be as per existing DJB policy. Further, service pipes of Consumers shall be replaced at DJB cost (normally consumer is expected to provide the same). The same has already been built in the capital estimate for the work.